In this issue, Foss et al compared cycling performance after two short-term arrival strategies at simulated altitude. Using a paired design, 10 cyclists were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (16% O2, equivalent to 2,500-m altitude) for 14 h overnight or 2 h before undergoing a 20-km cycle ergometry time trial in normoxia Sarchotic Teacher When A Teacher Is So Sarcastic People Aren’t Sure Whether She’s Joking Shirt or hypoxia. Subjects were blinded to the inspired gas, and the trial order was randomized. The goal was to determine.
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Which arrival strategy yielded a superior competitive advantage. Results showed no significant difference in average trial completion time between 2 h and 14 h of prerace hypoxia exposure (mean ~36.7 min, range ~33–41 min), leading to the conclusion that the two arrival strategies are equivalent. A closer look at individual data points reveals that 7 of 10 athletes showed little difference in trial times with either arrival strategy, thus supporting the conclusion.
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However, three athletes exhibited 1–2 min of absolute difference in trial times (2 faster with 14-h and 1 faster with 2-h prerace hypoxia exposure). Changes in plasma volume, ventilatory parameters, and overnight sleep quality assessed by a questionnaire, activity monitor, and pulse oximetry could not explain the divergent responses among subjects. The above discussion underscores two fundamental caveats in general data interpretation.
First, group means are routinely used to draw conclusions and infer the course of action for individuals. “Does the good of the many outweigh the good of the one?”. In this case, at least, the answer is “no”; supra-average response is a prerequisite in pursuit of the gold medal. Second, in an era of information overload and limited attention span, when Sarchotic Teacher When A Teacher Is So Sarcastic People Aren’t Sure Whether She’s Joking Shirt published results are increasingly disseminated and consumed as snazzy headlines and condensed summaries.