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Recent work shows that the SGE is greater in blood than in the gas phase, that Motorcycle On A Dark Desert Highway Cool Wind In My Hair Shirt this is due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch, that as mismatch increases, the SGE increases in blood but is diminished in the gas phase, and that these effects persist well into the period of nitrous oxide maintenance anesthesia. These modifications of the SGE are most pronounced with the low soluble agents in current use. We investigate further the effect of net gas volume loss during nitrous oxide uptake on low concentrations of other gases present using partial pressure-solubility diagrams.
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The steady-state equations of gas exchange were solved assuming a log-normal distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios using Lebesgue-Stieltjes integration. It was shown that under these conditions the classical partial pressure-solubility diagram must be modified, that for currently used volatile anesthetic agents the alveolar-arterial partial pressure difference is less than that predicted in the past, and that the alveolar-arterial partial pressure difference may even be reversed during uptake in the case of highly insoluble gases such as sulfur hexafluoride.
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Comparing this with the situation described previously for nitrogen in steady-state air-breathing, we show that for nitrogen, the direction of the alveolar-arterial gradient is opposite to the direction of net gas volume movement. Although gas uptake with ventilation-perfusion inequality exceeding that when matching is optimal is shown to be possible, it is less likely than alveolar-arterial partial pressure reversal.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Net uptake of gases administered with nitrous oxide may proceed against an alveolar-arterial partial pressure gradient. To illustrate the methods in a simple form.
The alveolar-arterial gradient for nitrogen in the steady-state breathing air depends not only on the existence of a distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in the lung but also on the presence of a net change in gas volume and is opposite in direction to the direction of net gas volume uptake. In 15 mongrel dogs, transverse sections along the length of the muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by using the software. We measured fiber diameters, cross-sectional fiber shapes, and cross-sectional area distributions of fibers. We also determined the numbers of muscle fibers Motorcycle On A Dark Desert Highway Cool Wind In My Hair Shirt per cross-sectional.