All subjects participating in this study signed a consent form. The research described in this manuscript was approved by our institution and by the Biomedical Engineering committee of Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Steady-state inspiratory air, heat, and water transport were Jeep Jeepvengers Shirt simulated using Fluent. Pressure-inlet and pressure-outlet boundary conditions were used to mimic the pressure-driven respiration occurring in real life.
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During expiration, the mucosal temperature increased back to original values. Thus we adopted a mean value of 32.6°C for the mucosal temperature during inspiration. Ambient air was set to 20°C at the nostrils, and outflow boundary conditions were applied to the outlet (see appendix for details). To account for the cooling effect of water evaporation, our heat flux calculation included a term of water flux times the latent heat of evaporation, as proposed by Naftali et al.
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The respiratory epithelium is coated with mucus, and thus the air was assumed to be at 100% RH at the air-tissue boundary of the main nasal cavity. However, the nasal vestibule is lined with squamous epithelium, and therefore water flux was set to zero in this region. To define the vestibule, we created a curve on the nasal surface by intersecting the nasal geometry with a cylinder (diameter = 20 mm) whose axis is perpendicular to the septum.
This curve was a good first approximation of the limen, the anatomic ridge marking the boundary between the nasal cavity proper and the vestibule A constant pressure drop was imposed equally on both nostrils of each reconstructed nose and chosen (using the target-mass-flow-rate feature of Fluent) such that Jeep Jeepvengers Shirt the total volumetric flow through the nostrils was 250 ml/s, corresponding to resting breathing. However, there are no experimental data.