Russia and China were just earlier than others in understanding the potential impact that a massively open information ecosystem would have on humans and human decision-making, especially at the political level, says Morgus. Their view was that a country’s citizens are just as much a part of the critical infrastructure as Get Hype Cleganebowl King’s Landing Brother Vs Brother Shirt power plants, and they need to be “protected” from malicious information targeting them, in this case, fake news rather than viruses.
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But this is not about protecting citizens as much as controlling them, says Lincoln Pigman, a Russia scholar at the University of Oxford and a research fellow at the Foreign Policy Centre think tank in London examples of peaceful protests bringing about lasting political change including, for instance, the People Power protests in the Philippines. A regime change resulting from foreign military intervention would not be considered a success, for instance.
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Working with Maria Stephan, a researcher at the ICNC, Chenoweth performed an extensive review of the literature on civil resistance and social movements from 1900 to 2006 – a data set then corroborated with other experts in the field. They primarily considered attempts to bring about regime change. A movement was considered a success if it fully achieved its goals both within a year of its peak engagement and as a direct result of its activities.
“We were trying to apply a pretty hard test to nonviolent resistance as a strategy,” Chenoweth says. The criteria were so strict that India’s independence movement was not considered as evidence in favor of nonviolent protest in Chenoweth and Stephan’s analysis – since Britain’s dwindling military Get Hype Cleganebowl King’s Landing Brother Vs Brother Shirt resources were considered to have been a deciding factor, even if the protests themselves were also a huge influence.